The King movement (Te Kīngitanga) began some years after the arrival of Europeans, in an attempt to halt sales of land and promote Māori authority in New Zealand. A number of tribes supported the movement, but it became centred on the Waikato region and people. The desire to retain land was a central concern of the movement, repeated in sayings, songs and haka. Here is an extract from an often-performed King movement haka:
Ka ngapu te whenua
|The earthquake shakes the land|
Where shall man find an abiding place?
Oh Ruaimoko [god of the lower depths]
Bind, tightly bind!
Be firm, be firm!
Hold fast the land.
In the 1850s tribes from all over the country, including the South Island, debated who should be offered the kingship. They finally agreed upon Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, the Waikato chief, who became first king in 1858. Pōtatau was succeeded by his son Tāwhiao in 1860. Tāwhiao’s reign coincided with the Waikato war of 1863–64, after which he led his people into exile in the lands south of Te Awamutu. This area is now known as the King Country. Tāwhiao, who was also a prophet, sustained the King movement in trying times and was succeeded by his son Mahuta in 1894.
Mahuta became a member of the Legislative Council and the Executive Council of Parliament during his reign. He was succeeded by his son Te Rata in 1912. Te Rata continued the work of his father by negotiating with the New Zealand government and the British Crown, and by seeking redress for grievances. He was succeeded by his son Korokī in 1933. Korokī was a quiet man but nevertheless a leader of mana. During his time he was aided by his aunt, Te Puea Hērangi. Korokī was followed in 1966 by his daughter Te Ātairangikaahu, and she was succeeded in 2006 by her son, Tūheitia Paki.
|THE KING MOVEMENT||ELECTION & CORONATION|
CROWNED BY ...
2nd May, 1859
Wiremu Tamihana Te Waharoa
----- Aug, 1860
Wiremu Tamihana Te Waharoa
14th Sep, 1894
Tana Te Waharoa
24th Nov, 1912
Tupu Taingakawa Te Waharoa
8th Oct, 1933
Tupu Taingakawa Te Waharoa
23rd May, 1966
21st Aug, 2006
Because the Maori “King” is the paramount chief of several important tribes, the tangi following his death is always a long-drawn-out and lavish occasion. While the tangi is taking place, the Kauhanganui, or Maori Parliament, meets to choose his successor. As this meeting is held shortly after the “King's” death, his successor is usually known well before he is installed in office and crowned. Potatau, the first King, was chosen for his personal mana and illustrious descent. His son and successor, Tawhiao, was chosen from several contenders, notable among whom were his sister Te Paea, and the chiefs Kerei and Wiremu Tamihana Te Waharoa. Since Tawhiao's time the succession remains with members of the Te Wherowhero family and, generally, falls to the deceased King's eldest surviving son. The Kauhanganui still retains some discretion in the matter, however, because when Te Rata died the choice was made between his eventual successor, Koroki, and his second cousin, Princess Te Puea Herangi.
The coronation takes place on the last day of the tangi for the dead “King” and shortly before his interment. Tawhiao's was the only coronation where the ceremony was delayed, due to the fact that Potatau died in the midst of difficult negotiations with the Colonial Government at a moment when the future of the King movement lay in the balance. Tawhiao's coronation was not held until nearly two months after his father's death and was attended only by his relatives and a few high chiefs.
The ceremony itself is simple and impressive. It begins when the King-elect, who wears Potatau's coronation korowai (mantle-cloak), is escorted to a point facing on to the marae. Three sides of this are lined by those who have come to pay their last respects to the late King while, by the fourth side, near where the King-elect stands with the principal chiefs of the King tribes, is an open tent containing the late King's coffin. The proceedings are all in Maori. A clergyman first recites the preliminary portions of the Anglican service and preaches a sermon. When this is over the senior descendant of Wiremu Tamihana Te Waharoa steps forward to stand facing the King-elect. He then crowns the King by laying a Bible upon his head, saying as he does so, “Your ancestors in the olden days were wont to be anointed with oil, but, since the advent of Christianity, they have been anointed with the Word of God. Therefore I place the Word of God upon your head”. Te Waharoa then leads the “King” forward, declaring him to be “King of the Maori race, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost”. The Bible used in this part of the ceremony has crowned each of the King's predecessors. As the Bible is laid on the King's head, the late King's flag, which has been flying at half mast, is lowered and his successor's flag is hoisted to the top of the flagpole.
After his coronation another high chief presents the King with a white feather – the emblem of purity and truth. The chiefs make short speeches saluting the new King and the ceremony ends with prayers, hymns, and the Benediction. Afterwards the King is conducted back to his tent. Later in the day he follows his predecessor's coffin to its last resting place, in the Royal Burial Ground on the summit of Taupiri Mountain.
He tongi tēnei nā te kīngī Māori tuarua, nā Tāwhiao. Ka whakahuatia te maha o ngā tipu:
Māku anō e hanga tōku whare
E ai ki tētahi whakamārama, mā te ringa o te Māori anake tōna anō oranga e whakapakari.
by Bernard John Foster, M.A., Research Officer, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington.
'MAORI KING – ELECTION AND CORONATION', from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, originally published in 1966. Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 18-Sep-2007 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/1966/M/MaoriKingElectionAndCoronation/en
Page last updated 25 Jul 2009